Explain Gresham's Law
Gresham law refers to the phenomenon that bad (abundant) money drives good (scarce) money out of circulation. This kind of phenomenon was often ovserved under the bimetallic standard under which both gold and silver were used as means of payments, with the exchange rate between the two metals fixed.
Explain the mechanism which restores the balance of payments equilibrium when it is disturbed under the gold standard.
The adjustment mechnism under the gold standard is referred to as the price-specie-flow mechanism expounded by David Hume. Under the gold standard, a balance of payment disequilibrium will be corrected by a counter-flow of gold. Suppose that the U.S. imports more from the U.K. than it exports to the latter. Under the classical gold standard, gold, which is the only means of international payments, will flow from the U.S. to the U.K. As a result, the U.S. (U.K.) will experience a decrease (increase) in money supply. This means that the price level will tend to fall in the U.S. and rise in the U.K. Consequently, the U.S. products become more competitive in the export market, while U.K. products become less competitive. This change will improve U.S. balance of payments and at the same time hurt the U.K. balance of payments, eventually eliminating the initial BOP disequilibrium.
Suppose that the pound is pegged to gold at 6 pounds per ounce, whereas the franc is pegged to gold at 12 francs per ounce. This, of course, implies that the equilibrium exchange rate should be two francs per pound. If the current market exchange rate is 2.2 francs per pound, how would you take advantage of this situation? What would be the effect of shipping costs?
Suppose that you need to buy 6 pounds using French francs. If you buy 6 pounds directly in the foreign exchange market, it will cost you 13.2 francs. Alternatively, you can first buy an ounce of gold for 12 francs in France and then ship it to England and sell it for 6 pounds. In this case, it only costs you 12 francs to buy 6 pounds. It is thus beneficial to ship gold due to the overpricing of the pound. Of course, you can make an arbitrage profit by selling 6 pounds for 13.2 francs in the foreign exchange market. The arbitrage profit will be 1.2 francs. So far, we assumed that shipping costs do not exist. If it costs more than 1.2 francs to ship an ounce of gold, there will be no arbitrage profit.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the gold standard.
The advantages of the gold standard include:
1. since the supply of gold is restricted, countries cannot have high inflation
2. and BOP disequilibrium can be corrected automatically through cross-border flows of gold.
On the other hand, the main disadvantages of the gold standard are:
1. the world economy can be subject to delationary pressure due to restricted supply of gold
2. The gold standard itself has no mechanism to enforce the rules of game, and, as a result, countries may pursue economic policies (like de-monetization of gold) that are incompatible with the gold standard.
What were the main objectives of the Bretton Woods system?
The main objectives of the Bretton Woods system are to achieve exchange rate stability and promote international trade and development
One can say that the Bretton Woods system was programmed to an eventual demise. Comment on this proposition.
The answer to this quesion is related to the Triffin paradox. Under the gold-exchange system, the reserve-currency country should run BOP deficits to supply reserves to the world economy, but if the deficits are large and persistent, they can lead to a crisis of confidence in the reserve currency itself, eventually causing the downfall of the system.
Explain how the special drawing rights (SDR) is constucted. Also discuss the circumstances under which the SDR was created.
SDR was creaed by the IMF in 1970 as a new reserve asset, partially to alleviate the pressure on the U.S. dollar as the key reserve currency. The SDR is a basket currency comprised of 5 major currencies, i.e., U.S. dollar, German mark, Japanese yen, French francs, and British pound. Currently the dollar receives a 40% weight, mark 21%, yen 17%, franc 11% and pound 11%. The weights for different currencies tend to change over time, reflecting the relative importance of each currency in international trade and finance.
Explain the arrangements and workings of the European Monetary System (EMS).
EMS was launched in 1979 in order to
1. establish a zone of monetary stability in Europe,
2. coordinate exchange rate policies against the non-EMS currencies
3. pave the way for the eventual European monetary union
The main instruments of EMS are the European Currency Unit (ECU) and the Exchange Rate Mechinism (ERM). Like SDR, the ECU is a basket currency constructed as a weighted average of currencies of EU member countries. The ECU works as the accounting unit of EMS and play an important role in the workings of the ERM. The ERM is the procedure by which EMS members countries manage their exchange rates. The ERM is based on a parity grid system, with parity grids first computed by defining the par balues of EMS currencies in terms of the ECU. If a country's ECU market exchange rate diverges from the central rate by as much as the maximum allowable deviation, the country has to adjust its policies to maintain its par values relative to other currencies.
There are arguments for and against the alternatives exchange rate regimes.
a. List the advantages of the flexible exchange rate regime.
b. Critize the flexible exchange rate regime from the viewpoint of the proponents of the fixed exchange rate regime.
c. Rebut the above critism from the viewpoint of the proponents of the flexible exchange rate regime.
A. The advantages of the flexible exchange rate system include:
1. automatic achievement of balance of payments equilibrium
2. maintenance of national policy autonomy
B. If exchange rates are fluctuating randomly, that may discourage international trade and encourage market segmentation. This, in turn, may lead to suboptimal allocation of resources.
C. Economic agents can hedge exchange risk by means of forward contracts and other techniques. They don't have to bear it if they choose not to. In addition, under a fixed exchange rate regime, goverments often restrict international trade in order to maintain the exchange rate. This is a self-defeating measure. What's good about the fixed exchange rate if international trade need to be restricted?
In an integrated world financial market, a financial crisis in a country can be quickly transmitted to other countries, causing a global crisis. What kind of measures would you propose to prevent the recurrence of a Mexico-type crisis.
First, there should be a multinational safety net to safeguard the world financial system from the Mexico-type crisis. Second, international institutions like IMF and the World Bank should monitor problematic countries more closely and provide timely advice to those countries. Countries should be required to fully disclose economic and financial information so that the peso-type surprises can be prevented. Third, countries should depend more on domestiv savings and long-term foreign investments, rather than short-term portfolio capital. There can be other suggestions.
Discuss the criteria for a 'good' international monetary sytem.
A good international monetary system should provide
1. sufficient liquidity to the world economy
2. smooth adjustments to BOP disequilibrium as it arises
3. safeguard against the crisis of confidence in the system.